One of the most difficult things to photograph. They are big, no really big. So large that unless you have access to another building, very special lens, or both you can’t capture the entire building.
Most Cathedrals are located within a plaza or piazza right in the middle of the city. Again there are few options for getting the right position. Notre Dame de Paris is on an island so there you have options. Other sites I tried for interesting positions around the plazas.